One Short Trip

Jantar Mantar

Jantar Mantar is a huge complex to learn about space and time. ‘Jantar’ or ‘yantra’ means machine and ‘mantra’ means calculate (machines that calculate). Jantar Mantar, an observatory, was constructed in the 18th century. Maharaja Sawai Jai Singh II had a lot of interest in astronomy and astrology, and had mastered four languages: Sanskrit, Arabic, Greek and Persian. There are 5 Jantar Mantars in North India at Mathura, Ujjain, Varanasi, Delhi and Jaipur which were completed between 1724 to 1735.

History of Jantar Mantar

Maharaja Sawai Jai Singh II was a good astrologer, astronomer, mathematician, town planner and a very good ruler as well. The first Jantar Mantar was constructed in Delhi, second at Varanasi, third Mathura, fourth Ujjain and thefifth at Jaipur. 

Jaipur Jantar Mantar was constructed at the last and in a vast area, and all the instruments here are still in working condition. The previous four observatories at Delhi, Varanasi, Mathura and Ujjain are incomplete and are not in working condition. They were built for trial, but finalised in Jaipur. Jaipur Jantar Mantar was completed in 1728, around 300 years ago. 

There are a  collection of 19 architectural- astronomical instruments built here. It also features the world largest stone sundial and it is a UNESCO World Heritage site.

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The observatory consists of 19 instruments for measuring time, predicting eclipses, tracking location of major stars, ascertaining the declinations of planets and determining the celestial attitudes.

  • Chakra Yantra 
  • Dakshin Bhitti Yantra 
  • Digamsha Yantra 
  • Disha Yantra 
  • Dhruva Darshak Pattika 
  • Jai Prakash Yantra 
  • Kapali Yantra 
  • Kanali Yantra 
  • Kranti Vritta Yantra 
  • Laghu Samrat Yantra 
  • Misra Yantra 
  • Nadi Valaya Yantra 
  • Palbha Yantra 
  • Rama Yantra 
  • Rashi Valaya Yantra 
  • Shastansh Yantra 
  • Unnatamsa Yantra 
  • Vrihat Samrat Yantra 
  • Yantra Raj Yantra
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Vrihat Samrat Yantra  

Vrihat Samrat yantra is a gigantic sundial, placed at the centre of the observatory. It is 27 metres long and it is renowned as the biggest sundial in the world. It is an equinoctial sundial and measures time up to the precision of 2 seconds. This sundial shows you the exact local time (Jaipur) with the precision of 2 seconds. You can see a triangular building with steps on it, with a ‘U’ shaped structure on its sides. On the left side of this ‘U’ shaped structure, you can see marble slabs cut to a definite length and placed. There is a count from the top written in hindi from 6 to 12 in a downward trend and similarly on the right side of the ‘U’ structure you can see the count continuing from 1 to 6 going upward. On the left, what we see is the morning time (6:00 a.m) and on the right is the evening time (6:00 p.m). This can be studied only during the day. Each marble slab gives an account of one hour. One hour is further divided into 4 parts of 15 minutes each. Each 15 minutes is further divided into three, that is 5 minutes each. 5 minutes is further divided into 5 segments, which is one minute each. And finally, one minute is divided into 3 which is 20 seconds each. So, this sundial has a final precision upto 20 seconds (accuracy). The shadow of the triangular wall falls on the white marble, and the place where the shadow falls depicts the time. But this is the local Jaipur time, while the time on our watch will be Indian standard time (IST).  The difference of the time will change according to the seasons between 11 to 16 minutes, which is mentioned on the board next to the sundial. This instrument shows time between 6 a.m and 6 p.m, a 12 hour clock.

Dhruva Darshak Pattika  

This is the second instrument here which is used to see the location of Pole star (Dhruva Nakshatra) which acts as a compass. Pole star is always on the North side.  

Nadi Valaya Yantra (24 hours sundial) 

This instrument shows 24 hours time with the help of the Sunlight and the Moonlight. There are a pair of circular plates, one facing North and the other facing South. Nadi Valaya  represents the two hemispheres (northern and southern) of the Earth. The wall of the plates is inclined at an angle (gradient), that the instrument is always parallel to the Earth’s equatorial plane. At the centre of the circular plate, you see a rod (needle). There are 24 slabs placed on the circular plate with markings written in Hindi. The shadow of the needle falls on these markings on the dial. The southern hemisphere clock is the winter clock while the northern hemisphere clock is the summer clock which works for six months alternatively.

Yantra Raj  

This is used to calculate Hindu calendar. It is 2.43 metres diameter bronze astrolabe, one of the largest in the world. This is only studied during night by the astronomers and astrologers to find the position of stars and planets. There are markings on the instrument where you can see the degree, position and name of the stars and planets. There is a complete circle (360 degree) marked on the instrument. There are lines depicting the latitude and longitude. There are points on the line depicting North pole and South Pole. There is also a hole at the centre depicting the equator. They have also written the name of the stars in Hindi, for example: Ashwini, Bharani, Krithika Nakshatra etc .

Jai Prakash Yantra  

This instrument is divided into two, part A and part B. There are two hemispherical bowl based sundials with markings on the white marble slabs. These two are complementary to each other. The missing marble in part A can be seen in part B and vice versa. This instrument shows the zodiac sign (sun sign). There are stairs to go under these instruments for two reasons; one to study the accuracy and the other is to clean the instrument for maintenance. There are four wires tied to the sides of the hemispherical bowl and at the centre there is a metal plate. The shadow of the metal plate will fall on the marble which shows the Rashi (Hindu astrology) where the sun is moving. The Zodiac sign will be the same, but it works for 1 hour alternatively, one hour in part A and one hour in part B.  There are also few instruments showing different Zodiac signs which help to write the Kundali seeing the position of the Sun.

Ram Yantra 

With this instrument, we can measure the altitude of the Sun above the horizon as well as the rotation of the Earth.  It consists of two parts: Part A and Part B; the missing stones in part A are found in part B and those missing in part B are seen in part A. There is a pole in the centre of both part A and part B. If the shadow falls on the marble it is said to be working while, if it falls on the missing marble then that part of the instrument is not working and we have to look for the shadow in the other instrument. 1 hour part A works and 1 hour part B works, like the Jaiprakash instrument.  

Palbha Yantra

A circular instrument with a pipe at the centre. The shadow of the pipe falls on the wall showing the angle of the altitude of the sun above the horizon.  As the sun goes up the angle changes and the shadow moves towards 90° at 12 noon. But Jaipur is not on the equator line, it is 27 degrees North latitude, so,  90 degrees minus 27 degrees is equal to 63 degrees. Exact right angle will be formed at 63 degrees at 12 noon. There are latitude lines drawn on the table surface which shows the altitude of the sun. The longitude lines are drawn on the walls which shows the rotation of the sun 24 hours (360 degrees).

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Jantar Mantar Entry Fees
Indians – ₹50
Foreign Tourist – ₹200
Students with Pass & ID Card – ₹15
International students with valid ID proof – 50

Jantar Mantar Timings 
Monday to Sunday  – 9:00 a.m. to 4:30 p.m. 

Best time to visit Jantar Mantar 
November to February 
On sunny days, visit between 10:30 a.m. to 11:30 a.m. or afternoon to 2:00 p.m – 4:00 p.m to understand the instruments better.

Jantar Mantar Website

Jantar Mantar Email

Jantar Mantar Phone Number 
Landline   +91-141-2822863,
Landline   +91-141-2822864

Jantar Mantar Address 
Jantar Mantar – Jaipur
Gangori Bazaar, J.D.A. Market,
Pink City, Jaipur,
Rajasthan 302002

Jantar Mantar Accommodation 

There is no accommodation inside Jantar Mantar, there are a few Boarding & Lodging nearby.
However if you are looking for Royal Accomodation (Heritage Properties) you can check – Heritage

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Jantar Mantar Distance

From Jaipur junction – 4.8 kilometres  
From Ajmer- 137.2 kilometres  
From Jodhpur- 336 kilometres
From New Delhi – 255 kilometres

How to reach Jantar Mantar


3 & 9A are direct busses available from the Jaipur City
Ticket Approximately  ₹8 Person. (Duration 35 Min)

You can also take shared auto rickshaw (Tuk-Tuk) to Jantar Mantar from Jaipur City which is 5 kilometres,  ₹10/ Person /Per Kilometer

Private auto rickshaw to Jantar Mantar – ₹50/One way, ₹100 both ways


The city is well connected from all sides, you can take auto rickshaw or taxi from Jaipur Junction railway station 



Nearest Jaipur International Airport (International / Domestic Airport) is 13 kilometres from Jantar Mantar
Drive time approximately 30 min – 45 min   

Bike / Car
Jaipur city bus station) – Patrakar Colony –  Pink City – Jantar Mantar

NOTE – Information mentioned above is completely based the information that i received from the tourist guide

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